Kalamoti is one of the largest medieval Mastiha villages in the centre of southern Chios and stretches out on a fertile plain. In Byzantine times, it used to be the largest and most important in the area and during the Genoese Occupation in Chios it was organized following the layout and town planning that can still be seen today. It became the seat of Milizia Catomerea, the military force that commanded southern Chios, then called Catomerea. The main elements of the village’s layout were its closed quadrilateral shape, its uninterrupted defensive wall formed by the external walls of the outlining houses, the few and narrow alleys, the small dimensions of public places and a multitude of churches. In the village centre, one can still see its former tower (Varvakas tower). The houses are stone-built but may include wood-carved details. Kalamoti’s layout assured its defense from pirate raids. Back in 1947-1957, a series of significant and pioneer – for the time – works took place with the contribution of benefactors. Among the village’s most remarkable monuments are the traditional square, its Primary School and Panagia Agrelopoussena church (13th-14th centuries). Locals have been traditionally engaged in agriculture, producing mastiha, olive oil and other agricultural products, but since 1950 there has been a noted turn to letters and science. The village still houses today the High School and Lyceum complex of Mastihohoria Municipality.